:

:

, ̻

302313



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2005


1        

2        

3        

4        

5        

6        

7        

8        

9        

10     

11      ( )

12     

13     

14     

15     

16      , ,


1

.

. . 1 (.1), - 2, 3 4.

, , .

- .

, - , , , . - , - .

, .

, , , . , , 45 150.


2

2.1 :

- =3,2 ; - =65 /; ; 10000 .

. 1 , :

1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4

2.2 .

- (2.1)

: - () .

(2.2)

[3, .2.2]: -

-

-

-

2.3

(2.3)

-

- .

,

- , .

[3,.2.3]:

,

[2, .3, .29] 1500-1 1124, = 5,5 , -1,

S=3,7%, -1.


2.4 .

(2.3)

.

2.5 .

- ;

- ;

- ;

- ;

- .


3.

3.1

[3]

-

(3.1)

(3.2)

3.2 .

,

(3.3)


4.

4.1

4.2

[1, c.211] 45 HRC 45 .

(4.1)

/

93, .

4.3

[1]:

[ σ] =HLv0,9s, (4.2)

v , , Vs=2,39 1,21

s,- , 93 s,=500

HL -

HL =, (4.3)

N=573w2Lh, (4.4)

Lh , Lh=10000

N=5736,8210000=39078600

(4.3):

HL =

HL =0,84

[ σ] =0,841,21500=510

Z1 U = 10 Z1 = 4

Z2 = Z1 x U = 4 x 10 = 40

q = 10;

= 1,2; [1]

[1, c.61]

(4.5)

(4.6)

2144-76 ( 4.1 4.2)

m = 4

q = 10

Z2 = 40 Z1 = 4

m, q Z2:

(4.7)

aw = 100 .

4.4

.:

(4.8)

(4.9)

(4.10)

[1]

(4.11)

b1=42젠

γ:

γ =arctg(z1/q)

γ =arctg(4/10)

γ = 21 º4805

ha=m=4; hf=1,2x m=4,8; c=0,2x m=0,8.

[1]:

(4.12)

(4.13)

(4.14)

(4.15)

(4.16)

b2=32

(4.17)

-

-

[1, 4.15]

, [1, 4.14]

(4.18)

[1, . 4.7] 7- Kv = 1,1

[1, 4.26]

q =10 Z1 =4 [1,. 4.6]

=0,6

4.5

< [GH] = 510.

.

.

[1, . 4.5] YF = 2,19

= 92,713 ࠠ

Ft, Fa Fr :

(4.19)

(4.20) (4.21)

.1.


1

m 4
z 40 4
ha, 4

hf,

4,8
, 0,8
d, 160 40

d,

168 48

df,

150,4 30,4

dm,

172 -
b, 32 42
γ 21º4805
V, / 0,54 1,36

Vs, /

1,64

Ft,

8725 138

Fa,

138 8725

Fr,

3176

5

5.1

(..2)

.2

( . 7.1 [2]):

d1 =25

d2 =d1+2t=25+22,2=29,9

d2 =30

d3≤df1=47,88

d3 =40

l1 =(1,21,5)d1 =1,4x25=35

l2≈1,5d2 =1,5x30=45

l3 =(0,81)dam=170

l4


5.2

(. .3)

.3

d1 =50

d2 =d1+2t=50+22,8=55,6

d2 =60

d3= d2 +3,2r=60+3,23=69,6

d2 =71

d5= d3 +3,2r=71+9,6=80

l1 =(1,01,5)d1 =1,250=60

l2≈1,25d2 =1,2560=75

l3 =(0,8..1)dam=170

l4


6

[3]:

=k2 , (6.1)

k

k=1,25-1,5

k=1,4

=1,4535,2=748 ×

, d2=50 [2,.2,.12] 1000-1-50-1-3 20761-80. 45.

[]³ ,

1000>748

.


7

.7.2.[2].

100 7306 333-79, - 7512 333-79 (.4).

.4 333-79.

.2.

2

7306 7512
d, 30 60
D, 72 110
, 21 20
b, 19 28
, 17 24

r,

40 94

0r,

29,9 75

8 .

.5.

.5


9

[4].

.6

9.1

d=25 bxh=8x7 2 t=4.

l1=35 l=32.


45 . :

, ×;

l , l=l-b,;

[s] .

, 20 ([s]=70100 /2) :


.


9.2

d=50 bxh=14x9 2 t=5,5.

l1=60 l=45.

45 . .3 ([s]=110190 /2) 2=748 ×:


.

9.3

d=71 bxh=20x12 2 t=7,5.

l1=32 l=32.

45 . 20 ([s]=70100 ) 2=748 ×:


.

.3.


3

- - -
b, 8 14 20
h, 7 9 12
l, 32 45 32

t1,

4 5,5 7,5

t2,

3,3 3,8 4,9

10

10.1

, (.7):

.7 ,

[1,.6.2]:

; (10.1)

- .[1].

d=32, bh=108.

:

d1= d+h+10;

d1min=50.

3805114-76 m=4, , 84. z=15.

:

d1=z x m

d1=60.

:

u- , u=2,2;

.

=110.

:

l=550.

:

180.

:

;

:

[v]- , [v]=25/.

:

[U]=30-1 .

F :

(10.2)

[3,.5.2].

[3,.6.2]:

.5, .1 7 (.8).

.8

.4.

4

Ft, 138 8725
Fr, 3176
Fa, 8725 138
F(F), 1232 5784
d, 40 160
=b, 93 42
, 67 86

10.2 .

.

( )

F :

m=[Faxd/2]:

m=872540×10-3/2=174,5×.

.

1åm=0

-RBy(a+b)+Fra- m=0

RBy=(Fr0,093- m)/ 0,186=(31760,093-174,5)/ 0,186=649,8

RBy=650

2åm=0

Ry(a+b)-Frb- m=0

Ry==(Fr0,093+ m)/ 0,186=(31760,093+174,5)/ 0,186=2526,2

Ry=2526

:

åF=0

Ry- Fr+ RBy=2526-3176+650=0

1,2,2,3 4 :

1=0;

2= Ry;

2=25260,093=235;

2= 2- m();

2=235-174,5=60,5;

3=0;

4=0;

, .

( )

1åm=0;

F(a+b+)-R(a+b)- Fta=0;

1232(0,093+0,093+0,067)-R(0,093+0,093)-1380,093=0;

R=(311,7-12,8)/0,186;

R=1606,9

R1607

2åm=0;

-R(a+b)+Ftb+F= 0;

R=(12,834+82,477)/0,186;

R=512,4

R512

åm=0;

-R+ Ft- F+ R=-512+138-1232+1607=0

.9

1,2,2,3 4 :

1=0;

2= -R;

2=-5120,093=-47,6;

3=- F ;

3=-12320,067=-82,5

4=0;

.

I-I=0;

II-II=T1=Ftd1/2;

II-II=2,76

:

:

.9 , - .

10.3

.10.1.

.

( )

F :

m=[Faxd/2]:

m=138160×10-3/2=11×.

.

1åm=0

-RBy(a+b)+Fra- m=0

RBy=(Fr0,042- m)/ 0,084=(31760,042-11)/ 0,084=1457,04

RBy=1457

2åm=0

Ry(a+b)-Frb- m=0

Ry==(Fr0,042+ m)/ 0,084=(31760,042+11)/ 0,084=1718,95

Ry=1719

:

åF=0

Ry- Fr+ RBy=1719-3176+1457=0

1,2,2,3 4 :

1=0;

2= Ry;

2=17190,042=72,2;

2= 2- m();

2=72,2-11=61,2;

3=0;

4=0;

, .

( )

1åm=0;

Fm(a+b+)-R(a+b)- Fta=0;

5784(0,042+0,042+0,086)-R(0,042+0,042)-87250,042=0;

R=(983,3-366,45)/0,084;

R=7343,2

R7343

2åm=0;

-R(a+b)+Ftb+F= 0;

R=(366,45+497,4)/0,084;

R=10284,2

R10284

åm=0;

-R+ Ft- Fm+R=-7343+8725-5784+10284=0

1,2,2,3 4 :

1=0;

2= -R;

2=-102840,042=-432;

3=- Fm ;

3=-57840,086=-497

4=0;

.

I-I=0;

II-II=T1=Ftd2/2;

II-II=698

:

 

:

.10

.10 , - .

 


11

.9 .10 , - , , , . .

-

.11

; (11.1)

.3 :

bh=2012.

t1=7,5

d3=71.

- [1. .8.5]

(11.2)

(11.3)

; 3;

; 3:

-

; (11.4)

; ;

.

-

; ;

.

. . (.12), (.13).

.12

.13

:

- :

sv=s; s=0; sv=14.

- :

τv=τ=τ/2; τv=τ=5.

-. , .

έs έτ

2 [1, .166 .8.7]

[1, .166 .8.7]

;

β , :

R=0,322,5;

β =0,970,9; [1, .162]

β =0,92.

. [1, .162]

(11.5)

; .

ψs=0,1.

. [1, .164]

; (11.6)

;

-Ѡ [1, .162]

(11.7)

[S]=1,55,5 [1, .162]

: , .


12

12.1

n2=652-1;

d3=30;

Ry=2526;

R=512;

RBy=650;

R=1607;

.

,

; (12.1)

;

2 F (.9).

;

;

, , ( 2)

;

;

0,35, d3=30.

7306, :

Dn2=72;

n2=21;

0=40 ;

=29,9

=0,34 ;

=1,78 [1,c.402, .7].

[1,c.212, .9.18]

;

V , V=1.

=0,4.

. .

.14 -

S=0,83×e×Fr [1,c.216]

S1=0,83×0,34×1733; S1=489;

S2=0,83×0,34×2577; S2=727.

, .

FaI=S1;

FaII=S2 +FaI;

FaI=489;

FaII=489+723; FaII=1216.

II

F2=(×V×Fr2+×FaII)×Kd×Kτ;

Kd - ;

Kd =1,31,5 [1,c.214, .9.19];

Kd =1,5;

Kτ ;

Kτ =1 ( 100º) [1,c.214, .9.20];

F2=(0,4×1×2577+1,78×1216)×1,5×1; F2=3195=3,2

[1,c.211]; (12.2)

.

(12.2):

; .

Lhmin=10000.

Lh> Lhmin, 7306.

12.1

n2=65,2-1;

d3=60;

Ry=1719;

R=10284;

RBy=1457;

R=7343;

.

, (12.1)

;

2 F (.10).

;

;

, , ( 2)

;

;

0,35, d3=60.

7512, :

Dn2=110;

n2=30;

0=94 ;

=75

=0,392 ;

=1,528 [1,c.402, .7].

[1,c.212, .9.18]

>

V , V=1.

=0,4.

. .

.15

S=0,83×e×Fr [1,c.216]

S1=0,83×0,392×7496; S1=2440;

S2=0,83×0,392×10426; S2=3392.

, .

FaI=S1;

FaII=S2 +FaI;

FaI=2440;

FaII=2440+3392; FaII=5832.

II

F2=(×V×Fr2+×FaII)×Kd×Kτ;

Kd - ;

Kd =1,31,5 [1,c.214, .9.19];

Kd =1,5;

Kτ ;

Kτ =1 ( 100º) [1,c.214, .9.20];

F2=(0,4×1×10426+1,78×5832)×1,5×1; F2=14550=14,55

[1,c.211]; (12.2)

.

(12.2):

; .

Lhmin=10000.

Lh> Lhmin, 7512.


13 .

VS = 2,38 /. s = 510 /2. 10.29 [3] ---460.

. , h (.15):

.16

h max £ 0.25d2 = 0.25×160 = 40;

h min = m = 4.

, , , . , , .

V = 0.65×PII = 0.65×3,65 = 2.37 .

, . . .

-, 8752-79. , .


14

=810 [3]; .

³4; ³(3240)

(2£500)

; , .

. .143 () 144 ( ) [2, .2, .255].


15

[3, .10]. :

-          ;

-          , , ;

-          , ;

-          ;

-          , ;

-          ;

-          ;

-          ;

-          , ;

-          , ;

-          , .

.


16 , ,

, , [3]. . .5.

5

,

Ra,

,

1,25 H7/p6
0,63 k6
1,0 H8
0,8 h12
0,4 r6
6,3 h7

:

-

-

2,5

2,5

h12

h12

0,63 k6
2,5 h7
6,3 H14,h14
, 25 H15,h15

17

, [t]=8095º. t=20 º. t [3]:

(18.1)

ή- ,

t =917 /(2) ,

, 2

[3, .11.6] 100 =0,24

(18.1) :

º£[t]

.


1.         .. . . 1987.

2.         .. -: 3 . -8- . . . . ... .: , 1999

3.         .. : . . .: . ., 1991

4.         .. . . .: . , 1978

5.         .., .., .. : . / . ..._.:.., 1989.-351.





2010